Abstract Factories are a Code Smell

When it comes to writing LOB applications, abstract factories are a code smell as they increase the complexity of the consumer instead of reducing it. This article describes why and offers alternatives.

TIP A more-elaborate, 14-page discussion of this topic can be found in section 6.2 of my book.

The Abstract Factory design pattern decouples the creation of a family of objects from usage. Compared to injecting a service into a constructor, a factory allows objects to be created lazily, instead of up front during object-graph composition. Many applications make use of the Abstract Factory pattern extensively to create all sorts of objects. When Abstract Factories are used to return application services, however, application complexity starts to increase. When developing Line of Business applications (LOB), the usefulness of this type of Abstract Factory is limited and should in general be prevented.

NOTE This article specifically targets factory abstractions that return application service abstractions and are consumed by application components—any other type of factory is fine and out of the context of this article. The kind of factory that you should reconsider is the factory abstraction that builds and returns application services.

Here’s a simple example of such a problematic Abstract Factory:

public interface IServiceFactory
    IService Create();

When you consider the consumer of such factory, a factory is hardly ever the right abstraction. Instead of lowering complexity for the consumer, a factory increases complexity, because instead of having just a dependency on the service abstraction IService, the consumer now requires a dependency on both IService and the Abstract Factory IServiceFactory. Although some find this increase to be insignificant, the increase in complexity can be felt instantly when unit testing such classes. Not only does this force you to test the interaction the consumer has with the service, you have to test the interaction with the factory as well.

Generally, the use of a factory abstraction is not a design that considers its consumers. According to the Dependency Injection Principle (DIP), abstractions should be defined by their clients, and since a factory increases the number of dependencies a client is forced to depend upon, the abstraction is clearly not created in favor of the client and we can, therefore, consider this to be in violation of the DIP.

To generalize this even more, we can state that

IMPORTANT Service abstractions should not expose other service abstractions in their definition.

This means that a service abstraction should not accept other service types as input, nor should it have service abstractions as output parameters or as a return type. Application services that depend on other application services force their clients to know about both abstractions. The problem is, therefore, broader than just factories, but for the rest of the article I’ll solely focus on the Abstract Factory.

Instead of having an IServiceFactory abstraction returning IService, at least two alternatives exist:

I’ll describe these two alternatives below in more detail, starting with the adapter.

Defining an adapter

Take for instance the following class:

public sealed class ShipmentController
    private readonly ICommandHandlerFactory factory;
    public ShipmentController(ICommandHandlerFactory factory)
        this.factory = factory ?? throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(factory));

    public void ShipOrder(ShipOrder cmd)
        ICommandHandler<ShipOrder> handler = factory.Create<ShipOrder>();

The code snippet shows the ShipmentController class that depends on the ICommandHandlerFactory, which is used to create an ICommandHandler<ShipOrder>. The returned handler is invoked by calling its Handle method to execute the command. In other words, ShipmentController depends on both ICommandHandlerFactory and ICommandHandler<ShipOrder>. Compare that to the alternative design using an adapter:

public sealed class ShipmentController
    // Constructor argument. Removed the constructor for brevity.
    private readonly ICommandDispatcher dispatcher;

    public void ShipOrder(ShipOrder cmd) => this.dispatcher.Dispatch(cmd);

By creating the ICommandDispatcher abstraction, you effectively halved the complexity of the controller. In this case the complexity is reduced to the point that you probably could consider removing controllers altogether and replacing them with a single dispatcher (or Front Controller). But that’s a story for another day.

Inside your Composition Root you can create an implementation of ICommandDispatcher that forwards commands to a created command handler. When using a DI container, your CommandDispatcher could look as follows:

sealed class CommandDispatcher Part of your Composition Root.
    : ICommandDispatcher
    private readonly Container container;

    public void Dispatch(dynamic cmd) => GetHandler(cmd.GetType()).Handle(cmd);

    private dynamic GetHandler(Type type) =>

Besides using the dynamic keyword, there are other, more compiler-safe, ways to implement the above CommandDispatcher, some of which are discussed in this article by Jimmy Bogard.

This brings us at the second alternative—using a Proxy.

Defining a Proxy

Instead of introducing a new abstraction such as the previous ICommandDispatcher, you might as well let the consumer depend on the service abstraction directly. This is useful in cases where no (extra) runtime data is required to make the decision which component to dispatch to. Imagine a scenario where your ShipmentController must be a long-lived object, while command handlers themselves must have a shorter lifetime. In this scenario you can’t inject the ShipOrderCommandHandler implementation directly into the controller because that would cause the handler to become a Captive Dependency. Instead of injecting a factory, however, you are better off creating a proxy implementation that delays the creation of the command handler until the moment its Handle method is called. Your ShipmentController becomes the following:

public sealed class ShipmentController
    private readonly ICommandHandler<ShipOrder> handler;

    public void ShipOrder(ShipOrder command) => this.handler.Handle(command);

You define a proxy that wraps the original instance while allowing it creation to be delayed:

sealed class DelayedCommandHandlerProxy<T> Part of your Composition Root.
    : ICommandHandler<T>
    private readonly Func<ICommandHandler<T>> handlerFactory;

    public void Handle(T command) => this.handlerFactory().Handle(command);

You probably already noticed the handlerFactory dependency. Whether or not you defined a proper abstraction like ICommandHandlerFactory<T> or simply use a Func<T> is irrelevant to the question whether it is a factory—this is a factory. But note that DelayedCommandHandlerProxy<T> is an infrastructural component, located in your Composition Root. Because the Composition Root has intrinsic knowledge about building the object graphs (it can be considered to be a big factory itself—an Abstract Factory on steroids), it is perfectly fine to depend on this Func<T> here, just as the previous CommandDispatcher depends on your DI container.

Without the use of a DI container, the construction of your ShipmentController using this proxy would become something similar to the following:

new ShipmentController(
    new DelayedCommandHandlerProxy<ShipOrder>(
        () => new ShipOrderCommandHandler())); Lambda expression

Here you inject a lambda expression into the proxy class that effectively delays the creation of the real handler. When your Composition Root is structured correctly, it is usually trivial to add such proxy.

Using your favorite DI container, registering the proxy could be as easy as:


The previous code snippet shows the registration API of Simple Injector. Where Simple Injector is concerned, your proxy class is a Decorator. Simple Injector’s decorator sub system has special support for handling Func<T> dependencies that produce the decoratee. It handles this natively and the code that is compiled by Simple Injector for this object graph will be identical to the previous manually constructed object graph.

Using the proxy, the consumer is oblivious to the implementation detail of this delayed creation, which is what you should strive for. In other words, the use of a proxy allows keeping this and other consumers as simple as possible by moving the responsibility of object creation into the Composition Root. This prevents you from having to make sweeping changes throughout the code base, as the proxy can be added transparently.

The dispatchers, facades, adapters, and proxies you define might still create objects themselves—they might still behave as factories internally—and this is perfectly fine. The factory-like behavior of these infrastructural components is an implementation detail encapsulated in the Composition Root, and instead of exposing instances through their contract, those components act on the given service and return their result. (Do note that both void and exceptions can be considered results as well.)

You obviously still need to have this factory-like behavior; removing the factory abstractions from your application does not immediately remove the need to create components. But like all code that creates components, this code should be part of your Composition Root.

Even with the alternatives given above, it can be difficult to stay away from factories. In the following two sections I’ll discuss common reasons where developers invalidly add factories to their application code, starting with the use of factories to delay object creation.

Using Abstract Factories for delayed object creation

There are obviously cases where the delayed creation of services makes sense, the prevention of Captive Dependencies being one of them, and in case you dispatch to multiple implementations it’s sometimes not very practical to build them up front, especially when such proxy can forward the call to a multitude of underlying implementations. Creating those dependencies all of the time won’t be a problem when there are just a dozen, but when the number of dependencies to dispatch to becomes big (as you can easily experience when dispatching commands or events), things start to change.

Although the previous reasons are valid, there are at least as many invalid reasons for delaying the creation of services as there are valid reasons like those you have just seen.

One such invalid reason for delayed creation is when services require runtime data during construction. Application components should not require runtime data during initialization. This is a code smell and this is something I discussed before.

Another invalid reason for delaying creation is when components require heavy initialization. Whether a component requires heavy initialization or not should be an implementation detail. Introducing a factory because some component is costly to create means the implementation detail is leaking into the consumer, and doing so violates the DIP. Introducing a factory to delay the creation of an existing component, leads to needless refactoring of the application. This is a violation of the Open/Closed Principle, which states that you must be able to make changes without having to do shotgun surgery.

You could avoid sweeping changes by injecting factories for all your service up front. Although this would work, doing so would obviously be madness. It would make the application very hard to maintain and test. Other developers will hate you for doing this and they are right, because—again—implementation details should not leak through abstractions.

Instead you should wrap the component with a proxy class that is able to delay the creation, as you’ve seen previously:

sealed class LazyServiceProxy : IService Part of your Composition Root.
    private readonly Lazy<IService> lazyService;

    public void DoSomething() => this.lazyService.Value.DoSomething();

An even more compelling argument against creating a factory for expensive components is that those components shouldn’t exist in the first place. Constructors of your components should do nothing more than storing the incoming dependencies. In other words, injection constructors should be simple and fast. This diminishes the need for delayed creation.

But sometimes, unfortunately, you are dealing with third-party components that require heavy initialization. You can’t change those third-party components, but at the same time, application code should not depend on third-party components nor their abstractions directly. Doing so is, again, a violation of the DIP, because those third-party components/abstractions are not defined by your application.

You should, instead, define application-specific abstractions that hide the existence of these components from the application. To connect your application to a third-party component, an adapter should be created as part of your Composition Root. That adapter than forwards or translates calls from the abstraction to the third-party component. With this practice it becomes trivial to solve the problem of such expensive third-party component—refactoring to deal with heavy initialization is then simply a matter of changing the adapter and you’re done. Again, no application code needs to be harmed.

Using Abstract Factories for Lifetime Management

Yet another common reason why developers invalidly add factories is to allow application code to explicitly manage the lifetime of a component. They introduce a factory abstraction that is in control of the creation of a component and passes on the ownership and management of the created component to the caller. The caller becomes responsible of ending the component’s lifetime—which is usually ended by calling Dispose. The following example demonstrates this:

public sealed class ShipmentController
    private readonly ICommandHandlerFactory factory;

    public void ShipOrder(ShipOrder cmd)
        var handler = factory.Create<ShipOrder>(); Controller handles life-
                                                   time of command handler
            handler.Dispose(); The controller now owns the handlers
			                   and is in control over its disposal.

Application code, however, should not be responsible for the management of the lifetime of services. Putting this responsibility inside the application code means you increase complexity of that particular class and make it more complicated to test and maintain. You’ll often see this lifetime management logic get duplicated across the application, instead of being centralized, which is what you should be aiming for.

IMPORTANT Application code should not be responsible for the management of the lifetime of services.

Clients will only be able to dispose of a factory-created component when its service abstraction implements IDisposable. Implementing IDisposable on abstractions, however, is—you might have guessed it—a DIP violation. It’s always easy to come up with an example of an implementation of such service implementation that doesn’t require deterministic disposal. If you can come up with an implementation that doesn’t require disposal it means your abstraction is defined with a specific implementation in mind, hence a DIP violation.

IMPORTANT Abstractions should not implement IDisposable.

For instance, such a component can be wrapped with a decorator that implements some cross-cutting concern, e.g. logging. It’s easy to imagine a logging decorator implementation that doesn’t require resource clean-up. Neither should it forward the Dispose call to the wrapped component, because the decorator can’t reasonably know if it’s allowed to dispose of its decorated dependency, since that dependency might be intended to outlive the decorator. Disposing of the dependency will lead to problems when the dependency is a longer-lived component or when it becomes in some future point in time, because the decorator would dispose a component that the application still intends to use. This would inevitably lead to an ObjectDisposedException.

Removing the IDisposable interface from a service abstraction (and moving it to the implementation) means a consumer can’t be responsible for managing the lifetime of the object. You elevate this responsibility back to the Composition Root. A common way for the Composition Root to manage the lifetime of such a dependency is by defining it as ‘scoped,’ where the scope can be both explicitly or implicitly defined.

Scopes are often defined implicitly when working in web applications. Most DI containers wrap the web request inside such a scope and this ensures your dependencies will be disposed of at the end of each web request. Other DI containers or other application types, however, expect you to explicitly wrap the request with a scope.

But sometimes you need the scope to be more fine-grained and this requires you to manage the lifetime explicitly. But instead of doing this in application code, you should do this management in an infrastructural component that is part of your Composition Root. The following example shows a proxy class that wraps the resolution of a service into an explicitly defined scope:

class ScopedCommandHandlerProxy<T> Part of your Composition Root.
    : ICommandHandler<T>
    private readonly Container container;
    private readonly Func<ICommandHandler<T>> handlerFactory;

    public void Handle(T command)
        using (AsyncScopedLifestyle.BeginScope(this.container))
            ICommandHandler<T> handler = this.handlerFactory();

If the service (in this case the ICommandHandler<T>) depends on any component that has a scoped lifestyle, the previous using block will ensure that the lifetime of that scoped component will end when the using block ends. This allows managing the lifetime of your components in a very fine-grained manner, without having to complicate application code while maintaining maximum flexibility.

Even though this whole article presents arguments against the use of factories, that doesn’t make them inherently bad. In the next section I’ll, therefore, describe a scenario where factories do make sense.

Abstract Factories in frameworks

This article specifically targets LOB applications, where the discussed factory abstractions often make little sense. While designing frameworks, on the other hand, defining abstract factory abstractions often makes a lot of sense, because framework-specified abstractions allow application developers to intercept the creation of the framework’s main types. Still, you won’t see any application code take a dependency on such framework-defined Abstract Factory. You will typically see the factory abstraction being overridden inside the application’s Composition Root, while application code stays oblivious of this. In this case the framework is the consumer of the Abstract Factory; your Composition Root merely implements it.

As a last note I would like to stress—again—that this article targets Abstract Factories that return application services. Abstract factories can be used for the creation of lots of other types of objects, such as data centered objects (such as DTOs or Unit of Work objects) or resources such as database connections. These types of factories are very useful, because they don’t expose other application abstractions from their definition.


When it comes to writing LOB applications, abstract factories are a code smell, because they increase the complexity of the consumer instead of reducing it. You are better off either replacing the factory abstraction with an adapter or proxy, because this avoids increasing the complexity of the consumer. Proxies are especially great because they prevent having to make sweeping changes later in the development process.

TIP A more-elaborate, 14-page discussion of this topic can be found in section 6.2 of my book.


Laksh - 23 August 16

So based on your reply here I was looking at ‘façade’ option since I have to get service instance based on runtime value.

Inside composition root, the CommandDispatcher implementation has reference to IOC container. But we also have to register CommandDispatcher with IOC container so that it can inject dispatcher into controller. So its like CommandDispatcher is referencing container and container also has reference to CommandDispatcher. Is this okay?

Steven - 24 August 16

Hi Laksh,

It is perfectly fine to reference the container from anywhere within your Composition Root. Your CommandDispatcher should be part of your Composition Root and in that case you’re okay.

Gica Galbenu - 30 August 16

Hi Steven, I’m trying to use a strict layered architecture with UI, API, Domain and Infrastructure for a PHP Web Application. So, UI uses API to acces Domain data and must have no access to any entity or domain service. In my architecture API is an anti-corruption layer.

This being the case, how should Entity objects be available on API?

API is injected in UI by some container; should entities be injected in API as well? What about entities, API services or Domain services that must create other entities, should I apply the Prototype Pattern and clone an injected entity prototype?

P.S. I’m a big fan of yours. Thanks for your blogs! Keep helping us, please! :)

Steven - 30 August 16

Hi Gica Galbenu,

I have little experience with PHP, so I can’t really comment on that. In general, however, entities should not be injected—entities are data returned by method calls on domain services. Neither should domain entities be exposed through your API—you expose simple DTOs through your API and keep your domain entities internal.

Sia - 16 September 16

Excellent articles! Thank you! I wish I could work for you, that will be a huge learning opportunity! :-)

Felix - 27 October 16

Hi Steven,

the composition root is typically the entry point of the application, and often as a solution grows, more composition roots get added. For example, I may have a Web Api composition root, a message queue Worker composition root and a web socket composition root.

All your suggestions revolve around moving knowledge of implementation details to the composition root, which makes perfect sense as the composition root by nature already has intimate knowledge of the entire application—with the exception of other composition roots.

So that wrinkle raises a new question: What is your recommendation for re-using your suggestions across multiple composition roots that are independent of each other?

The only thing I could think of is a new project that has intimate knowledge of the entire application (minus the composition roots) that gets re-used by the composition roots? But that then goes against your advice of placing them in the composition root. Curious to hear your thoughts.

Thank you, very helpful article!

Steven - 27 October 16

Hi Felix,

Typically, Composition Roots are not reused, as explained by Mark Seemann and me here.

You will typically only have reuse in case you have multiple applications that share a lot of the exact same functionality (e.g. both an MVC application and Web API that allow clients to execute the same use cases). In that case you can extract duplicate parts of your Composition Roots into a shared location. This shared code however is still part of your Composition Root, so my advice still holds: you place this in the Composition Root.

Dan - 14 July 17

I use a factory to create instances of a specific DbContext because when we do validation and want to run multiple rules at the same time multithreaded, we can’t run those at the same time with a single DbContext instance. Thus, I have to create multiple instances. Is that okay?

Steven - 14 July 17

Hi Dan,

As the beginning of the article states, this article specially targets “factory abstractions that return application service abstractions and are consumed by application components.” A DbContext is not an application component; it is a bag of runtime data. This means that this article does not apply to a factory that returns a DbContext.

Whether it is okay to have a factory for DbContexts, however, is a different, and perhaps more difficult to answer question. It certainly isn’t my first preference, as you can read in this Stackoverflow answer. A factory implies a new instance is returned on every call, which means application code becomes responsible of managing the DbContext, which might not always be the best solution.

A more reasonable design (IMO) would to have a provider (where the CreateContext() method is replaced with a GetContext() method or CurrentContext property), that allows access to an existing DbContext, where that DbContext is reused within a certain scope or request.

Dan - 14 July 17

That makes the assumption that the command isn’t doing anything async on multiple threads at the same time. If you do this and want to run validation rules or the command needs to load data from totally unrelated tables to complete itself, you’d be forced to wait if you were in the context of only one DbContext per command. Also, not every command is going to need a DbContext, so you’d be running code that never does anything for some commands (i.e. SaveChanges would be 0), but you’d be taking up possible resources creating it. The command really should be responsible for dealing with the database logic itself. If you need to connect to multiple databases across the application, then your decorator solution gets convoluted and running code that ends up never used.

I do understand what you are saying about the Method injection being a possible issue. No one likes passing the context around. That being said, you can always make the Factory have either CreateNew or GetCurrent (which calls new if one isn’t there) and make the factory per web request or whatever. Then its up to each individual class to determine if it should be joining the command’s context or it should use its own. Does that seem okay?

Steven - 15 July 17

Hi Dan,

I must disagree on almost all your points here. What I am proposing works fine when doing async or multi-threaded code, doesn’t require a DbContext to be created and managed when it isn’t used, and I personally never saw my decorators got convoluted because of this. But even if decorators get convoluted, that’s still better than spreading and duplicating this kind of logic throughout the application.

That said, the GetCurrent method on the Factory you are talking about is what I call a Provider. Where a factory always creates a new one, a Provider provides you with an existing instance (where it might create it on the fly when it is requested for the first time). Application code can just call provider.GetInstance() and it is up to the infrastructure to decide whether or not a new instance is created or not. Typically, this means that the infrastructure manages the scope in which code runs. For instance, when you wish to run validations of a command in parallel, this is something you can manage in the decorator, where the creation of each validator is done on its own thread, where the resolve is wrapped in its own scope. The results can be merged back to a single result.

If you are having trouble to figure out how to do this with Simple Injector, while using the command/handler and query/handlers designs that I talked about in the past on this blog, feel free to post a question to this GitHub repository. This is the place to have these kinds of architectural discussions. GitHub makes it much easier to show some code. Without discussing some actual code, chances are high that we are simply talking about different things and don’t understand each other.

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